When Victoria became queen over 80% of people lived in the countryside and did jobs such as farming or weaving. They lived in small communities and made their own clothing, furniture and tools. However, during Victoria’s reign, the Industrial Revolution took place. This was the shift from agricultural production to industry and meant that poor people who worked in the country on farms had to move to cities to find work.
By 1901, more than three quarters of British people lived in towns or cities.
People worked in factories, mines and mills for 18 hours a day in horrible conditions. Women were only allowed to do certain types of work, and they were paid even less than men.
During the Industrial Revolution the population in England increased by 260%.